Uthmaan bin Affan (radiAllahu anhu): The Third Caliph of Islam (Dhun-Noorayn)
Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
Assalaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakaatuh
Alhamdulillah, I pray that you have increased your eemaan from reading the narrations about the four rightly guided caliphate. Starting with that of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (radiAllahu anhu) and Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiAllahu anhu). We will now continue on this path to discuss the third righteous caliph in the line of succession, Uthmaan bin Affan (radiAllahu anhu). May Allah accept this action from me, you, and those who gathered the information for us to learn it, aameen
Sources being Used:
- The Prophet (sallaAllahu alaihi wa sallaam) and His Ten Companions (who were promised paradise) by Shaykh Abdul Ghani al Maqdisi (rahimahullah)
- The Golden Series of the Prophet’s Companions: The Third Caliph of Islam
His kunyah Abu Abdullah; ‘Uthmaan bin Affan bin Abi al-Aas bin Umayyah bin ‘Abd Shams bin ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab.
Dhun-Noorayn (the one with two lights). In Saheeh al-Bukhari it says, on al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufrah al Azdi al-Aqali (one of the great commanders)* d.83AH; “Why was Uthmaan (radiAllahu anhu) called Dhu’n Noorayn? He said: Because we did not know anyone who married two daughters of a prophet except him.” 16/201
Uthmaan (radiAllahu anhu) was born in Makkah six years after the Year of the Elephant, in Ta’if. After his acceptance of Islaam when he was 44 yrs, he migrated twice. The first time to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. It has been said, “Uthmaan (radiAllahu anhu) was the first one of this ummah to migrate to Abyssinia with his family.” [pg 25]
Questions related to the story
1. Read the Tafsir of Surah Al-Ahzab ayah 23. Be prepared to discuss what you have read.
2. Give three characteristics of Uthmaan bin Affan radi Allahu anhu.
3. How was Uthmaan bin Affan not like the other wealthy men and boys of his time?
4. Who felt shy when they saw Uthmaan?
5. Other than “Caliph”, what other title was given to the (Khulafaa’) caliphs from the reading.
6. What two purposes did the emigration to al-Madinah from Mecca serve for the Muslims and the new Muslim nation?
7. Name the three battles mentioned in the book.
8. For each battle mentioned, give a specific characteristic for that battle.
9. What happened at Al-Hudaibiyah?
Uthmaan bin Affan (radiAllahu anhu)
1. What is the modern name for Abyssinia and in what continent can it be found?
2. What were the characteristics of Uthmaan that made people respect and love him?
3. During the time of Uthmaan’s travels, before he became a Muslim, what did he hear from the Jewish and Christian scholars concerning Arabia?
4. Who was it that urged Uthmaan to accept Islam?
5. What events happened between Uthmaan and his uncle Al-Hakam bin Abi Al-‘Aas?
6. Who was Ruqayyah?
7. Why did Uthmaan migrate to Abyssinia?
8. Who was Najashi?
9. Name some of the plots the Quraish made against the Muslims who migrated to Abyssinia?
10. What did Ja’far bin Abi Talib do, that made the emperor cry; and what did the emperor do afterwards?
Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
A description of Uthmaan bin Affan (radi allahu anhu)
Notes taken from the class:
A Glimpse at the Lives of the Ten Given Glad Tidings of Paradise Presented by Dawud Adib at Masjidus Sunnatin Nabawiyyah Philadelphia, Pa 1/27/2006
Uthmaan (radi allahu anhu) was described as being medium in height, he had a beautiful face, even with the specks on his face from smallpox, this disfiguration made him even more handsome. His skin was soft and his beard was huge, its width went all the way across his shoulders and he was white skinned with a ting of yellow or light brown. He was known for his shyness before Islam and he was of very deep and extra ordinary intelligence. He stayed away from even thinking about the haram. He was known for keeping the family ties and for his long standing in Tahajjud and crying at the very mention of the next life, his humility, open handedness and generosity was well known.
These notes were taken by UmmRashad (Latifah bint ‘Adl)
Uthmaan bin Affan (radiAllahu anhu):
1) What news did the Muslim immigrants to Abyssinia receive and what did they find when they returned to Makkah?
2) After whose death did the Quraish begin to plot to kill the prophet Muhammad (salla allahu alaihi wa salaam)?
3) Who was Bani Hashim?
4) The Quraish imposed a boycott on the Muslims and Banu Hashim, what did this boycott do?
5) What did Uthmaan (radiAllahu anhu) do during the boycott?
6) Who was Ruqayah’s (radiyallahu anha) ex-husband and who was his father? *(Note: a side from the book it has also been narrated through historians that this person was her fiancé’)
7) Relay the story of the Jew and the well.
8) Why didn’t Uthmaan (radiAllahu anhu) partake in the Battle of Badr?
9) Who was Umm Kulthum (radiAllahu anha)?
10) What happened at Hudaibiyah and what pledge did all of the one thousand and four hundred Muslims give?
11) What did Uthmaan (radi allahu anhu) do when the mosque in Madinah could not fit all the people?
12) For the Battle with the Romans what did Uthmaan donate?
13) Because of Uthmaan’s generosity, the Prophet (sallaAllahu alaihi wa sallaam) offered this dua for him, “May Allah __________ you Uthmaan for anything you do in ______________ or in _________________, anything you do till the ___________ of __________________”.
Uthmaan bin Affan (radiAllahu anhu)
1) Who stabbed Umar ibn Al-Khattab (radi allahu anhu)?
2) Who were the companions that Umar (radi allahu anhu) left to choose the next caliph? 3) Describe how the election process was carried out and what part did Abdur Rahman bin Awf play in the election?
4) What message did Uthmaan (radi allahu anhu) send out after his election as caliph?
5) Also, what message was sent out by Uthmaan (radi allahu anhu) to the commanders of armies?
6) Give some the uprisings after Umar’s death.
7) Who was Al-Waleed bin Uqbah?
8) Discuss how under Uthmaan the Muslims expanded in Roman territories.
9) Why was their a need for a fleet of ships?
10) Discuss. The Byzantine campaign and what did the Muslims do while the Greeks chimed their bells?
11) Why did Uthmaan (radi allahu anhu) have the Quran compiled in the dialect of the Quraish?
12) After the compilation of the Quran what did Uthmaan do? What was it that guided Uthmaan’s actions?
13) What was the saying of the Prophet Muhammad (salla allahu alaihi wa salaam) that Uthmaan (radi allahu anhu) used to repeat?
Activities for this lesson: place words and word phrases in alphabetical order, define words and word phrases, write one or two paragraphs using some or all of the vocabulary words; then list at least 3 benefits gained from the reading inshaAllah. Students in grades 4 down/to Kindergarten are to write a sentence for these words (with help from their parents if needed).
- Yield (verb)
- Prospect (verb)
- Blemish (verb)
- Intimate (verb)
Points/Rewards: 4 (1 point per section completed)
Bonus Points: 5 – Explain the literal meaning of Dhun-Noorayn, then provide a textual proof from Quran or Sunnah for its usage regarding Uthmaan bin Affan (radiAllahu anhu).
Additional benefit: Uthmaan was also from ahl ash-shoora, (those whose opinions were sought concerning the most serious issues during the caliphate of Abu Bakr (radiAllahu anhu). Uthmaan was known for kindness and deliberation.
From the Modesty of ‘Uthmaan:
Chapter: The Virtues Of ‘Uthmaan Bin ‘Affan (radiAllahu anhu)
A’isha, the wife of Allah’s Messenger (sallaAllahu alaihi wa salaam), and Uthmaan both reported that Abu Bakr sought permission from Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) for entrance (in his apartment) as he had been lying on his bed covered with the bed-sheet of A’isha, and he gave permission to Abu Bakr in that very state and he, having his need fulfilled, went back. Then Umar sought permission and it was given to him in that very state and, after having his need fulfilled, he went back. And ‘Uthmaan reported:
Then I sought permission from him and he got up and said to A’isha: Wrap yourself well with your cloth, then I got my need fulfilled and came back. And A’isha said: Allah’s Messenger, why is it that I did not see you feeling any anxiety in case of dressing properly in the presence of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them) as you showed in case of ‘Uthmaan. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: Verily Uthmaan is a person who is very modest and I was afraid that if I permitted him to enter in this very state he would not inform me of his need.
Sahih Muslim ch.3/2402
Apply the 4’Rs to the following ayah: “And Al-Muttaqun (the pious and righteous) will be far removed from it (Hell).” Surah 92: 17
You may submit your assignments in the box below once per assignment. Should you need to submit additional assignments we suggest you do so through email inshaAllah. Watch this page for additional Biographies of Companions, questions, and activities. Jazaakumullahu Khayraa